Preambulatory and Operative Clauses – Full List

One of the most important elements for writing a successful Model UN resolution is the correct use of appropriate phrases to begin the preambulatory and operative clauses. Below is the full list of preambulatory and operative phrases to maximize the effectiveness of you MUN resolution.

What are Preambulatory Clauses?

Preamble clauses state the reasons for why the committee is acting on a given topic. It should highlight relevant legal precedents, former relevant United Nations resolutions and past international actions on the issue. Each clause should begin with a preambulatory phrase (known as a present participle) is written in italics and ends with a comma. For more information about how to write a preambulatory clauses and Model United Nations resolutions check out our article on How to Write a Resolution or How to Write a Clause.

Preambulatory Phrases

Acknowledging
Acting
Affirming
Alarmed by
Alarmed
Anxious
Appreciating
Approving
Aware of
Bearing in mind
Believing
Cognizant
Concerned
Confident
Conscious
Considering
Contemplating
Convinced
Declaring
Deeply concerned
Deeply conscious
Deeply convinced
Deeply disturbed
Deeply regretting
Deploring
Desiring
Determined
Emphasizing
Encouraged
Expecting
Expressing appreciation

Noting with approval
Expressing concern also
Expressing concern
Expressing its appreciation
Expressing its satisfaction
Expressing satisfaction
Firmlyconvinced
Fulfilling
Fully alarmed
Fully aware
Fully believing
Further deploring
Further recalling
Guided by
Having adopted
Having considered
Having considered further
Having devoted attention
Having examined
Having heard
Having received
Having reviewed
Having studied
Having adopted
Having approved
Having considered
Having decided
Keeping in mind
Mindful
Noting
Noting further

Noting with deep concern
Noting with regret
Noting with satisfaction
Observing
Reaffirming
Reaffirming also
Realizing
Recalling
Recalling also
Recognizing
Recognizing also
Recognizing with satisfaction
Referring
Regretting
Reiterating
Reiterating its call for
Reminding
Seeking
Seized
Stressing
Taking into account
Taking into consideration
Taking note
Taking note also
Taking note further
Underlining
Viewing with appreciation
Viewing with apprehension
Welcoming
Welcoming also

What are Operative Clauses?

Operative clauses are solutions to the problems addressed in the preambulatory clauses. Operative phrases are are action oriented. They should be written in italics and with numbers before each operative clause. Operative clause verbs need to be from the operative words list below but sub clauses do not need to start with these words phrases. However, operative sub clauses should still avoid vague language and still be action oriented. For more on how to write operative clauses check out our article on how to write Model UN resolutions.

Operative Phrases

Accepts
Acknowledges
Adopts
Advises
Affirms
Also calls for
Also recommends
Also strongly condemns
Also urges
Appeals
Appreciates
Approves
Authorizes
Calls
Calls for
Calls upon
Commends
Concurs
Condemns
Confirms
Congratulates
Considers
Decides
Declares
Declares accordingly

Demands
Deplores
Designates
Directs
Draws the attention
Emphasizes
Encourages
Endorses
Expresses its appreciation
Expresses its hope
Expresses its regret
Further invites
Further proclaims
Further recommends
Further reminds
Further requests
Further resolves
Has resolved
Instructs
Introduces
Invites
Notes
Notes with satisfaction
Proclaims
Reaffirms

Recalls
Recognizes
Recommends
Regrets
Reiterates
Reminds
Renews its appeal
Repeats
Requests
Requires
Solemnly affirms
Stresses
Strongly advises
Strongly condemns
Strongly encourages
Suggests
Supports
Takes note of
Transmits
Trusts
Underlines
Underscores
Urges
Welcomes

Now that you have the full list of the preambulatory phrases and MUN operative clause words, all you need to do is pop them into your resolution. If you are a trainer you can also use them to write samples of preambulatory clauses, sample operative clauses or even a full sample MUN resolution.

If you aren’t sure how to write a resolution, or want to see examples of preambulatory clauses or examples of operative clauses check out our article on how to write a resolution or how to write a clause. You can also check out this video which shows how to write a UN style resolution operative clauses. 

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